Veganism Pros & Cons

A healthy, nutritious diet is essential for your physical and mental well-being.

Veganism is gaining in popularity worldwide due to its reported health benefits, environmental benefits, and animal welfare benefits.

A vegan diet avoids all animal-based food products (beef, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products) while consuming plant-based foods.

Animal products have been a major part of Western diets for decades, with meat consumption seen as a symbol of status and wealth in soceity. Although meat is a good source of protein, vitamins and minerals, it could be detrimental to our health. Studies have shown that high intakes of red meat, and processed meat products have been linked to cardiovascular disease, obesity, and cancers (Pan et al., 2012; Song et al., 2016).

Vegan diets consist of plant-based foods rich in whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, fruits, and vegetables, while avoiding all animal-origin food products.  

In this article we explain (in plain English!) the conclusions of scientific studies that have looked at veganism. 

There are several variations of a vegetarian diet:

  • Lacto-vegetarians allow the consumption of low-fat dairy products
  • Ovo-vegetarians allow the consumption of eggs
  • Pescatarians allow the consumption of fish
  • Pollotarians allow lean white meat such as chicken to be consumed.

Drawbacks of Veganism

In this section, we will discuss the drawbacks of a vegan diet.

It is important to consult with your doctor or a dietitian before choosing to follow a vegan diet.

Although veganism has numerous health benefits, it is essential to educate yourself on ways to eat a balanced, healthful vegan diet, and avoid falling into the trap of consuming more processed, plant-based foods (refined carbohydrates such as pasta, white bread, crisps, and sweets) with low nutrient densities. These foods are generally lacking in fibre and essential nutrients which ultimately leads to nutrient deficiencies which can cause harmful effects to your health.

Potential drawbacks of an unbalanced, restrictive vegan diet are nutritional deficiencies in:

  • Protein
  • Omega-3 fatty acids
  • Iron
  • Vitamin D
  • Calcium
  • Xinc
  • Iodine
  • Vitamin B12 

(Source: Melina et al., 2016)

Let’s cover each, in turn:

Protein

Vegans following an unbalanced, restrictive diet could be at risk of a low daily protein intake. It is important to ensure you are receiving adequate amounts of daily protein to meet your needs.


Dietary protein is essential for (Caballero, 2005):

  • Growth and repair of tissues
  • Enzymatic reactions (digestion)
  • Hormones (insulin)
  • Structure of hair (keratin) and skin (collagen)

It is possible to consume adequate amounts of protein (including all essential amino acids) with a vegan diet, if consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day (Mangels, 2011).  

Legumes (chickpeas, black beans, lentils, and soy) and nuts (almonds, walnuts, and cashews) are all good sources of protein, and provide many other beneficial nutrients (Messina, 2014).

Consult with a dietitian if you are concerned that you are not consuming enough protein in your diet.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is found mostly in animal-based food products (fish, meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fortified cereals). Vegans are particularly at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency, with plant-based products containing little to no vitamin B12 (Green et al., 2017).


Vitamin B12 is essential for the nervous system and blood. 

It plays an essential role in DNA synthesis, brain and nerve cell function, and red blood cells. Deficiency may lead to neurological disordersautoimmune gastritis, and megaloblastic anaemia (Stabler, 2013).

Vegans should monitor their vitamin B12 levels, and supplement where necessary.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3 fatty acids play an essential role in the development and repair of brain, retina (eyes), and cell membranes (Melina et al., 2016).


There are various types of omega-3 fatty acids: ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) is found mainly in plant sources (seeds and nuts), while EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are found in animal sources (fatty fish). Vegan diets are generally absent of EPA and DHA (Sanders, 2009). Fortunately, ALA is able to convert into EPA (Melina et al., 2016).

It is possible to consume adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids with a vegan diet “Evidence suggests that n-3 needs of healthy individuals can be met with ALA alone, and that endogenous synthesis of EPA and DHA from ALA is sufficient to keep levels stable over many years” (Melina et al., 2016).

Plant-based sources of omega-3s include seeds (flax, chia, and hemp) and walnuts.

When choosing to follow a vegan diet, it is important to consume a variety of plant-based foods to ensure that you are consuming enough energy, protein, vitamins and minerals from various sources, this will ensure that your body is receiving adequate nutrients and prevents deficiencies.

Benefits of Veganism

Despite the drawbacks of veganism covered in the previous section, numerous studies have reported the many health benefits of a veganism.

In the sections that follow we highlight studies that have linked veganism with health benefits such as:

  • Weight loss and weight management
  • Reduced blood pressure
  • Reduced risk of diabetes
  • Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Cancer Prevention
  • Gut health
  • Athletic performance
  • Reduce psoriasis symptoms
  • Reduced Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms
  • Beneficial for environment

According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics “An appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes” (Melina et al., 2016).

Weight loss

A vegan diet could aid in weight loss and weight management.

A review published in the journal, Nutrients, investigated the effect of plant-based diets on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference on participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who usually consumed a diet containing meat. They found that adherence to a plant-based diet was effective in weight loss “vegan dietary patterns are effective in reducing body weight in overweight and obese adults as well as those with T2D” (Austin et al., 2021).

Research conducted by Huang et al. (2016), evaluating the effect of a vegetarian diet on weight loss, reported that participants who adopted a vegetarian diet had greater weight loss than those who adhered to a non-vegetarian diet “Vegetarian diets appeared to have significant benefits on weight reduction compared to non-vegetarian diets” (Huang et al., 2016).

Reduced Blood Pressure

A vegan diet may reduce your risk of developing high blood pressure.

A review published in the journal, Nutrients, examined the effectiveness of a vegetarian diet on reducing blood pressure. Vegetarian, including vegan diets were successful at lowering blood pressure “vegetarian diets are associated with significant reductions in blood pressure compared with omnivorous diets; a vegan diet demonstrated a greater reduction in systolic blood pressure” (Lee et al., 2020).

Reduced Diabetes Risk

Diabetes mellitus is a health condition characterised by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. It affects more than 400 million individuals globally, and is considered one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Veganism may reduce your risk of developing diabetes.

A review published in the journal, Nutrients, looked at the influence of a vegetarian and vegan diet on diabetes risk. They found that a vegetarian, especially vegan diet was associated with a reduced risk of developing diabetes “a vegetarian diet has a protective effect against diabetes risk” (Lee & Park, 2017).

A study published in the journal, Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, investigated the association of diet and risk of diabetes. Adherence to a vegan diet was associated with lower chance of developing diabetes “Vegetarian diets (vegan, lacto ovo, semi-) were associated with a substantial and independent reduction in diabetes incidence” (Tonstad et al., 2013).

Protective Against Cardiovascular Disease

Veganism could offer protective benefits against cardiovascular disease.

A study published in the journal, Nutrients, investigated the cardio-metabolic benefits of a plant-based diet. They found that a well-planned, healthful plant-based diet was able to control weight and blood-sugar levels, while providing protection against cardiovascular disease “plant-based diets may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events by an estimated 40% and the risk of cerebral vascular disease events by 29%” (Kahleova et al., 2017).

Scientists from the University of Oxford examined the relationship between a vegetarian diet and the risk of developing ischemic heart disease (also known as coronary heart disease). They found that vegetarians had a 32% lower risk of IHD than non-vegetarians “Consuming a vegetarian diet was associated with lower ischemic heart disease risk” (Crowe et al., 2013).

According to Le & Sabate (2014), “Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular mortality”.  

Veganism may reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

A study published in the journal, Nutrients, evaluated the effectiveness of a vegan diet in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A vegan diet was effective in prevention and management of MetS “this dietary pattern seems to be useful in the prevention and treatment of MetS and CVDs if well-planned by a nutritionist” (Marrone et al., 2021).

Cancer Prevention

Veganism may offer protective benefits against cancer.

Scientists from The Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine at the University of Florence, evaluated the link between vegetarian and vegan diets and risk of total cancer and specific cancer (colorectal, breast, prostate and lung). A vegan diet was linked to a lower chance of developing cancer, “Vegan diet conferred a significant reduced risk (−15%) of incidence from total cancer” (Dinu et al., 2017).

A study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, investigated the relationship between dietary habits and rate of prostate cancer. Adherence to a vegan diet resulted in a significantly reduced risk of developing prostate cancer “Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer” (Tantamango-Bartley et al., 2015).

Improved Gut Health

Veganism may lead to improved gut health.

A study published in Frontiers in Nutrition, investigated the differences in microbiomes of vegan and omnivorous individuals. They found that those adhering to a vegan diet had more health promoting compounds in their gut “Vegans had significantly lower abundances of potentially harmful (such as p-cresol, lithocholic acid, BCAAs, aromatic compounds etc.) and higher occurrence of potentially beneficial metabolites (SCFAs)” (Prochazkova et al., 2022).

A study published in the journal, Nutrients, examined the effects of a low-fat vegan diet on gut microbiota in overweight participants. The low-fat vegan diet beneficially influenced the composition of gut microbiota and lead to weight reduction and improved insulin sensitivity “A low-fat vegan diet induced significant changes in gut microbiota, which were related to changes in weight, body composition, and insulin sensitivity in overweight adults” (Kahleova et al., 2020).

A review published in Frontiers in Nutrition, analysed at the influence of a vegan diet on human gut microbiota. They found that a vegan diet produced a beneficial impact on gut microbiota and health “A vegetarian/vegan diet is effective in promoting a diverse ecosystem of beneficial bacteria to support both human gut microbiome and overall health” (Tomova et al., 2019).

Athletic Performance

Veganism could support the needs of athletes and may even improve performance.

Scientists from the University of Quebec, investigated the differences in endurance and muscle strength of vegans and omnivores. All participants adhered to either a vegan or omnivore diet for at least 2 years. Vegans had greater estimated VO2 max and submaximal endurance time to exhaustion “a vegan diet does not seem to be detrimental to endurance and muscle strength in healthy young lean women. In fact, our study showed that submaximal endurance might be better in vegans compared with omnivores” (Boutros et al., 2020).

A study conducted by scientists from Innsbruck, Austria examined the health status (body weight, mental health, chronic diseases, hypersensitivity reactions and medication intake) of vegan endurance runners compared to omnivores.  They reported that a vegan diet provided optimal health conditions for endurance runners “a vegan diet, is associated with a good health status and, thus, at least an equal alternative to an omnivorous diet for endurance runners” (Wirnitzer et al., 2019).

Reduced Fibromyalgia Symptoms

Fibromyalgia is a medical condition which is characterised by pain affecting the whole body, leading to sleep problems, and emotional and mental distress.

Veganism may be an effective diet aiding in reduction of fibromyalgia symptoms and improving quality of life.

A review published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, examined the effect of vegan and vegetarian diets on individuals with fibromyalgia. Vegan diets were effective at alleviating the negative symptoms of fibromyalgia “Mainly plant-based diets such as vegetarian or vegan diets seem to reduce fibromyalgia symptoms and improve the quality of life of these patients. Body composition, sleep quality, depression and body inflammation have improved following these dietary patterns” (Nadal-Nicolas et al., 2021).

Scientists from the University of Kuopio, in Finland investigated the effectiveness of a vegan diet in reducing fibromyalgia symptoms. Adherence to a vegan diet for 3 months resulted in reduced pain, joint-stiffness, and improved quality of sleep “vegan diet had beneficial effects on fibromyalgia symptoms” (Kaartinen et al., 2000).

Reduced Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease, where the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells and leads to painful swelling and inflammation in affected joints.

Veganism could be effective at reducing symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.

A study published in The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, evaluated the effect of a 4-week low-fat vegan diet on individuals suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. A significant reduction in all rheumatoid arthritis symptoms were observed. C-reactive protein (a marker for inflammation in the body) decreased by 16 %, and rheumatoid arthritis factor decreased by 10 % “patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis, who switch to a very low-fat, vegan diet can experience significant reductions in rheumatoid arthritis symptoms” (McDougall et al., 2002).

Scientists from the Department of Physiology at the University of Kuopio, Finland evaluated the effectiveness of a vegan diet rich in antioxidants on patients with rheumatoid arthritis. They reported that adherence to a vegan diet rich in vitamin C, carotenoids and vitamin E lead to a reduction in rheumatoid symptoms “rheumatoid patients subjectively benefited from the vegan diet rich in antioxidants, lactobacilli and fibre” (Hanninen et al., 2000).

Improved Psoriasis Symptoms

Psoriasis is a skin condition characterised by dry, red, itchy skin.

A vegan diet may assist in alleviating symptoms and improve skin condition.

A study published in the journal, Dermatology and Therapy, evaluated the effectiveness of dietary habits on psoriasis outcomes. Seventy percent of patients following a vegan diet reported an improvement in skin conditions “Specific diets with the most patients reporting a favourable skin response were Pagano (72.2%), vegan (70%), and Paleolithic (68.9%)” (Afifi et al., 2017).

Environmental benefits

Veganism offers environmental benefits such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, reduced land use, and fertiliser use.

A study published in the journal, Sustainability, evaluated which diet has the lowest environmental impact on our planet. They found that a vegan diet had the least detrimental impact on our environment “the vegan diet is the optimal diet for the environment because, out of all the compared diets, its production results in the lowest level of GHG emissions” (Chai et al., 2019).

According to Springmann et al. (2018), “Dietary changes towards healthy, low-meat diets can be effective in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, moderately effective in reducing cropland use and fertiliser application in high-income and middle-income countries”.

Wrapping Up

In conclusion, scientific evidence supports the fact that a vegan diet provides numerous benefits to your health, including:

  • Weight loss and weight management
  • Reduced blood pressure
  • Reduced risk of diabetes
  • Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Cancer Prevention
  • Gut health

A well-planned, balanced vegan diet rich in healthful plant-based foods such as wholegrains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds can provide you with the nutrition your body need to grow and stay healthy.


It is important to consult with your primary physician to monitor for deficiencies and supplement where necessary.

References:

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  • Boutros, G. H., Landry-Duval, M. A., Garzon, M., & Karelis, A. D. (2020). Is a vegan diet detrimental to endurance and muscle strength?. European journal of clinical nutrition, 74(11), 1550-1555.
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  • Green, R., Allen, L. H., Bjørke-Monsen, A. L., Brito, A., Guéant, J. L., Miller, J. W., ... & Yajnik, C. (2017). Vitamin B12 deficiency. Nature reviews Disease primers, 3(1), 1-20.
  • Hänninen, O., Kaartinen, K., Rauma, A. L., Nenonen, M., Törrönen, R., Häkkinen, S., ... & Laakso, J. (2000). Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders. Toxicology, 155(1-3), 45-53.
  • Huang, R. Y., Huang, C. C., Hu, F. B., & Chavarro, J. E. (2016). Vegetarian diets and weight reduction: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of general internal medicine, 31(1), 109-116.
  • Kaartinen, K., Lammi, K., Hypen, M., Nenonen, M., Hänninen, O., & Rauma, A. L. (2000). Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms. Scandinavian journal of rheumatology, 29(5), 308-313.
  • Kahleova, H., Levin, S., & Barnard, N. (2017). Cardio-metabolic benefits of plant-based diets. Nutrients, 9(8), 848.
  • Kahleova, H., Rembert, E., Alwarith, J., Yonas, W. N., Tura, A., Holubkov, R., ... & Barnard, N. D. (2020). Effects of a low-fat vegan diet on gut microbiota in overweight individuals and relationships with body weight, body composition, and insulin sensitivity. A randomized clinical trial. Nutrients, 12(10), 2917.
  • Lee, K. W., Loh, H. C., Ching, S. M., Devaraj, N. K., & Hoo, F. K. (2020). Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure lowering: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. Nutrients, 12(6), 1604.
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Veganism Studies

Date

Name of Paper

Journal Name

Link to Paper

2022

Effect of a Four-Week Vegan Diet on Performance, Training Efficiency and Blood Biochemical Indices in CrossFit-Trained Participants

Nutrients

2022

Vegan Diet Is Associated With Favorable Effects on the Metabolic Performance of Intestinal Microbiota: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Omics Study

Frontiers in Nutrition

2022

The effect of therapeutic exercise and vegan diet on pain and quality of life in young female patients with chronic non-specific neck pain

Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy

2021

Vegan Diet Health Benefits in Metabolic Syndrome

Nutrients

2021

Effects of Plant-Based Diets on Weight Status in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

Nutrients

2021

Vegetarian and Vegan Diet in Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review

Environmental Research and Public Health

2021

Vitamin B6 Status among Vegetarians: Findings from a Population-Based Survey

Nutrients

2020

Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Pressure Lowering: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis

Nutrients

2020

Effects of a Low-Fat Vegan Diet on Gut Microbiota in Overweight Individuals and Relationships with Body Weight, Body Composition, and Insulin Sensitivity. A Randomized Clinical Trial

Nutrients

2020

Is a vegan diet detrimental to endurance and muscle strength?

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

2019

Diet quality of vegetarian diets compared with nonvegetarian diets: a systematic review

Nutrition Reviews

2019

Health Status of Female and Male Vegetarian and Vegan Endurance Runners Compared to Omnivores—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2)

Nutrients

2019

The Effects of Vegetarian and Vegan Diets on Gut Microbiota 

Frontiers in Nutrition

2018

Impact of vegan diets on gut microbiota: An update on the clinical implications

Tzu-chi medical journal

2018

Health and nutritional aspects of sustainable diet strategies and their association with environmental impacts: a global modelling analysis with country-level detail

The Lancet Planetary Health

2018

Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease

Progress in Cardiovascular Disease

2017

Cardio-Metabolic Benefits of Plant-Based Diets

Nutrients

2017

Dietary Behaviors in Psoriasis: Patient-Reported Outcomes from a U.S. National Survey

Dermatology and Therapy

2017

Adherence to a Vegetarian Diet and Diabetes Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Nutrients

2017

Assessment of the nutritional quality and environmental impact of two food diets: A Mediterranean and a vegan diet

Journal of Cleaner Production

2017

Environmental impact of omnivorous, ovo-lacto-vegetarian, and vegan diet

Scientific Reports

2017

Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

2016

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets

Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

2016

Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

2016

Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Journal of General Internal Medicine

2016

Whole grain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies

BMJ

2015

Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: A randomized controlled trial of five different diets

Nutrition

2014

Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts

Nutrients

2014

The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection

Nutrients

2013

Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

2013

Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2

Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardivascular Diseases 

2013

A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a plant-based nutrition program to reduce body weight and cardiovascular risk in the corporate setting: the GEICO study

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

2012

Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2)

Public Health Nutrition

2012

Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Vegetarians: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism

2012

A Two-Year Randomized Weight Loss Trial Comparing a Vegan Diet to a More Moderate Low-Fat Diet

Obesity

2011

Vegetarian Dietary Patterns Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: The Adventist Health Study 2

Diabetes Care

2009

Vegetarian and vegan diets in type 2 diabetes management

Nutrition Reviews

2009

Type of Vegetarian Diet, Body Weight, and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Care

2009

Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms

Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology

2006

Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC–Oxford

Public Health Nutrition

2006

A Low-Fat Vegan Diet Improves Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Care

2006

Colonic health: fermentation and short chain fatty acids

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology

2006

Review article: prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract

Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

2005

Vegetarian Diets

Book: Encyclopedia of human nutrition

2004

Effects of a Very Low-Fat, Vegan Diet in Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis

The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine

2003

Diet and body mass index in 38 000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans

International Journal of Obesity

2003

Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets.

Journal of American Dietetic Association

2003

Calcium balance in young adults on a vegan and lactovegetarian diet

Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

2000

Effectiveness of a low-fat vegetarian diet in altering serum lipids in healthy premenopausal women

The American Journal of Cardiology

2000

Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders

Toxicology

1999

Vegan diet in physiological health promotion.

Acta Physiologica Hungarica

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